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DIARRHOEA :

Defination :
It is a condition in which liquid faeces is passed frequently without constitutional disturbance. It indicates something wrong with intestines or depressing influence in the intestines. It is itself not a disease but merely a symptom of some disease.

Causes :
As enteritis, sudden change of diet, mouldy, rancid or fermenting material etc.

Symptoms:
Frequent passing of liquid stool. Sometimes blood stained. Dull, depressed and mild abdominal pain. Ordinarily there is no temperature but high temperature in specific diseases. The continuous diarrhoea is serious because absorption of nutrients is impaired and loss of fluid gives rise to dehydration. If the treatment is not undertaken in time, there is often death. The laboratory examination of faeces will reveal the causing agent

DYSENTERY :

Defination :
It is a condition in which liquid consistency of faeces is discharged with blood and mucous at frequent intervals accomplanied by pain and tenesmus.

Causes :
It is mostly associated with some specific diseases e.g. Haemorrhagic septicaemic, Anthrax, Rinder pest, coccidiosis Amoebiasis, ulceration and inflammation or rupture of blood vessels of intestines etc.

Symptoms :
Discharge of liquid stool with blood and mucous at ferquent intervals and straining during defecation. The blood may be fresh or back in colour. Appetite decreased but not off feed. Pain in abdomen due to pressure on belly. The temperature may be elevated or high in specific diseases. The animal becomes weak, dull and depressed. In severe continuous conditions, there is dehydration and anaemia. If the treatment is not undertaken in time, it causes fatal.

ENTERITIS :

Defination :
It is the inflammation of intestines. The intestines comprises of various parts and the inflammation of each has separate terminology e.g.

  • Duodenum Duodenitis
  • Ileum Ileitis
  • Caecum Typhilitis
  • Colon Colitis
  • Reetum Proctitis.

Enteritis may be either specific or non-specific nature. It is common in all animals

(i) Specific Nature :
It occurs in specific diseases with specific causes e.g. Rinder pest, foot and mouth disease. johne's disease, tuberculosis, lamb dysentery swine fever etc.

(ii) Non-specifitc Nature :
It resembles to those conditions which are found frequently in gastritis. Thus, the combined conditions of gastritis and non-specific nature are called Gastor-Enteritis.

Causes :

  • Succulent green fodder or frosty food or cold.
  • Irritants-e.g. foreign bodies, poisonous plants, grasses and vegetables etc.
  • Poisons-e.g. Arsenic. Lead, mercury etc.
  • Bacterial disease e.g. H.s anthrax, Braxy, Johne's diseases, salmonellosis, lamb dysentry, white scoute, swine erysipelas etc.
  • Viral diseases-e.g. Rinder pest, foot and mouth disease, Distemper, swine fever etc.
  • Parasites and protozoa e.g. flukes, Haemonchus, ostertegia, Gastrophilus, Ascardiae, coccidae, amoeba etc.

Symptoms :
Diarrhoea and dysentery, dehydration in serious condition and absorption disturbed due to less chemical changes.

In Cattle :
There is persistent diarrhoea with progressive anaemia, faeces thin and watery often blood stained, variable temperature, high temperature in specific diseases, no temperature in parasitic and poisoning cases, progressive wasting in prolonged cases, rapidly fatal suspects malicious poisoning.

In Horse :
Dullness with continuous abdominal pain manufested by restlessness, constipation in beginning but later on followed by diarrhoea, pulse small and hard, respiration not interfered, mucous membranes congested, condition due to parasites usually appear during autumn, winter and early spring and is serious for young colts, faeces often thin, watery with offensive odour, abdomen slightly pendulous and oedema of the dependent parts. In delayed conditions, it may prove fatal due to excessive loss of power and anaemia.

In Dogs :
Frequent passing of watery stool with offensive smelling, intermitent vomitting, high temperature in specific diseases, convalescence in puppies may be seen

RINDER PEST OR CATTLE PLAGUE :

Definition :
It is highly contagious and febrile disease of ruminants and swine and characterised by sudden onset. high fever and ulcerative inflammation of mucous membranes of the mouth and gastro-intestinal tract. It occurs in cloven i.e. split or dividid footed animals such as cattle. buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs and wild ruminants. The indigenous cattle runs a mild course with 20 to 50° mortality whereas foreign breeds are more susceptible with more than 90°F mortality.
In some cases, the uterus is also displaced completely along with the vagina after parturition outside the body.

Etiology :
It is caused by Morbilli viruses. The virus is found in all secretions and excretions of infected animals such as the saliva, dischrges from eyes and nostrils, urine and faeces. It remains present in the circulating blood during the febrile stage of the disease and is later concentrated in the different organs. Outside the animal body, the virus is rapidly destroyed by direct sunlight and disinfectants.
The disease usually spreads through contaminated materials as feeds, water, utensils, clothing, hides, etc and attendants. It may also spread through air, contaminated infective discharges, faeces and urine. The incubation period of the disease varies from 3 to 9 days. About 4 to 6 days of invasion the symptoms of the disease develop.

Symptoms :
The first noticeable signs are sudden onset, rapid course, considerable number of animals affected, pyrexia, rise of temperature 104° to 108°F, suspended rumination, loss of appetite, dullness, depression, great thirst, mouth hot, buccal mucous membranes congested and red, slight colic, arching of the back and spasmodic twitching and the dung usually covered with mucous.
Later on, red spots like pin points and greyish-white nodular elevations are usually seen on the gum, hard palate, tongue, inside the lips and cheeks, pharynx is congested, salivation, conjunctivitis, a mucopurulent discharge from eyes and nostrils. The spots and elevations enlarge and coalesce to form ulcers wiht round raised edges and a depression covered with bran-like deposits. The removal of superficial deposits leaves bright red erosions.
Similar lesions also develop in the abomasum and throughout the intestines. Purging now sets in like shooting diarrhoea. The faeces like rotten fish. The rectal mucous membrane become congested and swollen due to constant diarrhoea and may get everted. The anal region is soiled with blood stained fotid faeces. The animal lies down with head turned towards the flank. In some cases, the skin of udder and hairless space, over the neck and shoulder, under surface of the belly land inner side of thigh etc become covered with scabes, scales and sores.
In milch animals, milk yield is reduced and pregnant animals usually abort.
The animal loses the condition rapidly and becomes weak, emaciated and exhausted due to anorexia, fever and severe diarrhoea. Death may result in 6 to 10 days from the onset of the symptoms.

Causes :

  • Nutritional and Calcium deficiency
  • Raised feeding trough ahead and down in back
  • Injuries and accident
  • Bad manipulation during Dystokia and retention of placenta.
  • Intense excitement, irritation and pressure of labour

Symptoms :
The prolapsed vagina looks like a mass and reddish in colour. If the uterus is also prolapsed, the protruded parts will be more. The surface of the mass or the mucous membrane looks moist and red or pink in colour. The cotyledons are seen deep red like mushroom eminences or like round nodes. It expands in the open air and there may be mild pain. The animal remains in distress and tries to lie down and to get up frequently. The mass is contaminated with dirt and dust etc and is lacerated by friction and dragging in course of sitting. There is great difficulty in sitting down and getting up and passing urine due to pressure or obstruction on urethra. The placenta may be formed adhered to the outer surface of the mass that can be easily recognised. The outer surface may be covered with the faeces that are passed during severe straining

DISEASE INFECTION :

The post parturition diseases are give below-

Defination :
The entrance of infective organisms into the genital tract causes pathological condtions resulting in decreased fertility in both males and females, e.g., Brucellosis, Vibriosis, Trichomoniasis, Epidicdymitis, Vaginitis etc. These organisms cause inflammation in the genital tract, Vaginits etc. These organisms cause inflammation in the genital tract. In brucellosis, orchitis (inflammation of testes) and vesicultis (inflammation of seminal vesicle) are commonly observed. In females, this infection often results in abortion and placenta is retained several times.
In case of vibriosis and trichomoniasis, the clinical symptoms are not obvious and no pathological changes in the genital tract are readily detected. The only symptoms commonly observed is frequent infertile services. The only symptoms commonly observed is frequent infertile services. The infection is transmitted during coitus. The oestrus cycles in the infected females are usually longer ranging from 30 to 40 days. There is undetected early embryonic death. Abortion also occurs during advanced stage of pregnancy but the incidence of such abortion is not high as brucellosis.
The infections of genital tract commonly occur during the calving time and after parturition. The infections may cause vaginitis in the vagina, cervicitis in cervix, methritis and endometritis in uterus, salpingitis in fallopian tubes, oophoritis in ovaries. In many cases, this condition may occur with the contaminated hands and instrument used at the time of dystocia and retention of placenta.
These conditions, the vagina and cervix should be swabbed with the stock solution of lugol's solution prepared as below. It gives good result

(b) DISEASE OF POST PARTURITION :


The post parturition diseases are give below-
  • Retention of placenta.
  • Metritis.
  • Prolapse of vagina and uterus.
  • Mastitis and allergic mastitis.
  • Agalactia and artificial induction of lactation in virgin goats. maiden heifers and dry cows.
  • Navel-ill or joint ill.
  • Umbilical hernia.
  • Deficiency diseases, e.g. milk fever, ketosis, lactation, tetany
  • Parturient eclampsia

(i) RETENTION OF PLACENTA

Defination :
Retention of placenta is a delay or detention in expulsion of the foetal membrane after parturition, i.e. not expelled within normal time. Normally, the time of expulsion depends upon the species and individuals, e.g., within 1/2 to 6-8 hours in cows, about half an hour in mares and immediately after birth or along with the foetus in ewes, bitches, sows and cats. The retention of placenta is the commonest in the cow. If it is retained for longer period, it gives harmful effects to the as it starts decomposing.
The placenta is a covering membrane, i.e. foetal membrane in the womb by which the foetus is nourished. At birth, it helps in dilation of the cervix of the uterus and genital passages, forms a part of the `waterbag' and lubricates the maternal passages on brusting. It is a source oif hormones which may stimulate milk production. The owner should be careful at the time of delivery for the placenta as it is eaten by the cow, mare, bitch, sow and cat.

Symptoms :
A portion of the placenta my or may not be visible hanging from the lips of the vulva. There may be an offensive chocolate coloured discharge from the vagina soiling the hind parts and tail of the cow. Freuently she switches her tail and paddles with the hind legs. She stands with her back arched. The foul smelling discharge may be accompanied with some pieces of ecomposed membrane passing out from the vagina at intervals. There may be inflammation of uterus, i.e., metritis. Its toxin may spread to other parts of the body. There may be fever, reduction in milk yield, dullness and loss of appetite. The animal may be sterile.

(ii) METRITIS :

Defination :
It is an inflammation of the uterus with fever and dirty sticky or pus like discharges from the vagina. It occurs after parturition. It may be limited to the local tissues or may evolve other portion of the genital tract causing as follows

Endometritis : is an inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the uterus.

Pyometra : is the accumulation of pus within the uterine vavity. In some cases, its collection becomes so great that causes considerable distention of the uterus.

Salpingitis : is an inflammation of the fallopian tubes.

Ovaritis : is an inflammation of the ovaries.

Cervicitis : is an inflammatory condition localised in the cervix.

Vaginitis : is an inflammation of the vagina.

Causes :

  • External injuries or maniplation of the uterus during retention of placenta or foetus.
  • Bacterial infection., e.g. Staphylococci, Coryne Bacteria Pyogenus, Mycotuberculosis etc.
  • Protozoa e.g. Trichomonus Foetus.
  • Dystokia or Retention of placenta
  • Entrance of infection through cervix after parturition.
  • Hormonal disturbances as seen in bitches

Symptom : It may be acute or chronic.
Acute cases of Cow-Rumination suspended, appetite lost, reduction in milk yield, high temperature up to 108°F, the lips of the vulva swollen and painful to touch, the mucous membrane of the vagina highly congested and inflammed. Frequent attempts of micturition and dirty bloodish discharge from the vagina.

In chronic cases :
Some symptoms of acute subside, light fever, milk yield does not continue. apparently no or little swelling and pain, dirty putrid smelling or pus like discharge from the vagina. It may be followed by recovery but often result in sterility. In some cases death may result from pyaemia, septicaemia or toxaemia

(iii)PROLAPSE OR VAGINA AND UTERUS :

Defination :
Sometimes the vagina is displaced and forced to come outside particularly in the pregnant animals. It may occur before and after the parturition mostly in the debilitated and calcium deficient animals.
In some cases, the uterus is also displaced completely along with the vagina after parturition outside the body.

Causes :

  • Nutritional and Calcium deficiency
  • Raised feeding trough ahead and down in back.
  • njuries and accident.
  • Bad manipulation during Dystokia and retention of placenta.
  • Intense excitement, irritation and pressure of labour.

Symptoms :
The prolapsed vagina looks like a mass and reddish in colour. If the uterus is also prolapsed, the protruded parts will be more. The surface of the mass or the mucous membrane looks moist and red or pink in colour. The cotyledons are seen deep red like mushroom eminences or like round nodes. It expands in the open air and there may be mild pain. The animal remains in distress and tries to lie down and to get up frequently. The mass is contaminated with dirt and dust etc and is lacerated by friction and dragging in course of sitting. There is great difficulty in sitting down and getting up and passing urine due to pressure or obstruction on urethra. The placenta may be formed adhered to the outer surface of the mass that can be easily recognised. The outer surface may be covered with the faeces that are passed during severe straining.