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Encephalitis :

MENINGITIS :

Defination :
It is inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. When it affects the membranes of brain is called cerebral meningitis. When it affects the membranes of spinal card is called spinal meningitis. When it affects the membrenes of both brain and spinal cord called cerebrospinal maeningitis.

Causes :
As enteritis, sudden change of diet, mouldy, rancid or fermenting material etc.

Symptoms :
Frequent passing of liquid stool. Sometimes blood stained. Dull, depressed and mild abdominal pain. Ordinarily there is no temperature but high temperature in specific diseases. The continuous diarrhoea is serious because absorption of nutrients is impaired and loss of fluid gives rise to dehydration. If the treatment is not undertaken in time, there is often death. The laboratory examination of faeces will reveal the causing agent

Causes :

  • Infectious diseases e.g. Tuberculoses, rabies, strangles, distemper etc.
  • External injuries e.g. fracture of skull and nosal cavities
  • Pyogenic infection e.g. joint ill.
  • Pasasites e.g. Multiceps cysts, strongyl larvae etc
  • Poisoning
  • Indigestion
  • Heat stroke

Symptoms :
In horse-restlessness and excitement, bellowing and barking, moving in wild frenzy, after delirium the animal becomes dull and quiet, the head hangs, the eyes stare, vacant expression, dullness and depression. food is only taken when it is placed near, retained faeces and urine, the animal remains in one position for hours unless vigorously roused, turning in circles, rolling along the ground, turning forward and backward resting the head upon any fixed object, paralysis of one side of the body or both hind limbs etc.

In Cows - Anorexia dullness, refuse to move, finally epileptic form of atttacks that follow one another until the end.

In Dogs - Complete paralysis of hind limbs and retraction of head and neck

ENCEPHALITIS :

Defination :
It is inflammation of the brain substance. It may occur to all domesticated animals but more often in dogs and horses. It may be acute and chromic

Causes :

  • Infection of the skull bones, the nasal vavity or the frontal sinuses by bacteria or viruses or toxins conveyed by the blood stream e.g. rabies, distemper, influenza, prenumonia etc.
  • Pyogenic organisms, e.g. compound fracture, suppuration or carises of bone, diseases of frontal sinuses or nasal cavities small and large abscesses.
  • Parasitic invasion e.g. multiceps cysts etc.

Symptoms :
Paralytic signs as twiching and tetanic spasm of the muscles of neck and limbs. Staggering gait or leans against the wall for support. It the animal remains standing in one position for hours and days, it finally falls and becomes unable to rise. If the paralysis affects one side of the body, it affects other side of the brain. Several symptoms of meningitis like excitement. delirium, convulsion etc are common in it. If the effect of paralysis is severe. it results fatal. Meningits and encephalitis may be differentiated as following :

  • Meningitis is more common in cattle and sheep. There is general Paralysis without disturbing conciousness.
  • Encephalitis is more common in dogs and horses. There is often one sided paralysis ie. Hemiplegia with loss of consciousness.

TRYPANOSOMIASIS OR SURRA :

Defination :
This is a disease of intermission and reoccurrence of fever characterised by pyrexia, shivering of hind quarter, walking in circle with excitement, oedema of dependent parts, weakness of loins and back, emaciation and exhaustion. It occurs in all domesticated animals.

Etiology :
It is caused by trypanosomes evansi. This is a blood parasite. They are transmitted by blood sucking flies such as tabanus, stomoxys, tse tse etc. The incubation period is one to two weeks.

Symptoms
: In cattle and buffaloes-The disease is generally mild. The animals may harbout the parasites for several months without any apparent effect. It may be in the following forms-

  • 1. Peracute 2. Acute 3. Subacute and 4. Chronic

1. Pereacute form :
Sudden high fever, excessive excitement, aimless movement, dash against wall or any object like blind or intoxication or mad, shivering or tremors particularly thigh parts or lie becoming unconscious, off feed, rumination suspended, salivation, frequent micturition with little quantity and temperature falls. In severe conditions the animal dies and in mild case survives.

2. Acute form :
Intermittent fever, moves in circle or remains standing, frequent micturition, shivering in thigh, sweating, grinding of teeth, salivation, irregular appetite, irregular rumination, moves with restriction, falls down or lies down, turning of head to one side, oedema on limbs, half opened eyes as in sleeping posture, extending neck and putting muzzle on the ground or contraction or expansion of the muzzle in a peculiar way, unconscious, head lowered in standing postion. Death may occur within a day or two.

3. Subacute :
No fever, dull and depressed, movement as mad, irregular appetite land rumination, constipation or diarrhoea, salivation, cough, weakness, lies down and unable to get up, paralysis of hind quarters and taking food irregularly and irregular rumination, Death occurs within one to two weeks.

4. Chronic form :
No fever, little, feeding and drinking, progressive weakness, emaciation and exhaustion, animal lies down becoming unconscious, unable to get up. Death may occur in two weeks or may linger up to a month or two.

In Horses :
In chronic form - Intermittent fever. each rise of temperature lasting for three to four days. Dullness. pin-point haemorrhages in the visible mucous membranes especially of eyes which later on become pale and may acquire a yellowish tinge. The animal becomes progressively weak in spite of good appetite, while oedematous swellings appear on the lower parts of the legs and under the thorax, belly. sheath and lower jaw and other dependent parts of the body. Intermission and reoccurrence of fever mark the progress of the disease. In the last stage. the wasting is pronounced, with a staggering gait. emaciation, debilitation and paralysis of legs sets in. Death may occur in one to two months.

In Camels :
In Acute form - Intermittent fever, oedematious swelling on the dependent parts of the body and progressive debility and emaciation. Death may occur within a few months.

In Chronic form -
Recurrent fever, irregular appetite, listlessness, mucous membranes pale, opacity of cornea, diarrhoea, tremors in thigh, sexual excitement, oedematious swellings on the dependent parts of the body, mange like skin affections, gradual wasting, loss of condition, debility, emaciation, diasppearance of hump and paralysis sets in. The disease runs a course of 2 to 3 years or more and usually progresses to a fatal issue if not treated. Death may occur due to exhaustion. Threrefore, it is called `Tibarsa`.

In Dogs :
Hyperpyrexia, anaemia, emaciation and paralysis. In the last, the disease is fatal. The disease takes a course of 1 to 3 months.
In Elephants-Recurrent fever, dullness. loss of condition. It occurs in chronic form. It may last for several years. Death due to exhaustion.