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Defination :
A fever is a symptom of any disease. It denotes the condition of disturbed metabolism and indicates complex functional disturbances. It is usually accompanied by elevated temperature, i.e. pyrexia and functional disturbances. The functions of the organs become irregular.
It is to be noted that fever may occur without pyrexia. The body temperature may be elevated without fever known as hyperthermia, e.g., heat-stroke, effect of certain drugs, confined to a closed room or truck during transportation. The subnormal temperature of the body is known as Hypothermia as it occurs in shock, collapse, starvation, anaemia, etc. There are three stages of a fever (1) cold or shivering, (2) hot and (3) sweating. In 1st stage, there is a rising temperature, feeling of cold and rigors. In 2nd stage, ther is maximum temperature alnd feeling of heat. In 3rd stage, there is sweating and fall of temperature. When the temperature falls in a few hours, it is known as crysis and if the temperature takes several days to fall, it is known as lysis.

Causes :
The chief causes are bacteria, virus, protozoa, toxin, etc.

Symptoms :
Rise of temperature with chill and shivering in the beginning, feeling of heat in the maximum temperaure, and sweating at fall of temperature. Rumination suspended, off feed, dullness, dropping ears, dryness of muzzle, thirsty, increased pulse and respiration, erected hairs, scanty urine with yellowish colour and presence of albumin, acetone, etc in the urine.


Defination :
It is a peculiar disease of milch animals without fever characterised by staggering gait, unconsciousness and partial or complete paralysis of the hind quarters and sometimes other parts are also paralysed.
It occurs within 48 hours after calving or within 3 days after calving usually in cows of the age of 5 to 10 years old. It may occur in she buffaloes, ewes, goats, bitches an sows.

Causes :

  • Sudden decrease of calcium level in blood soon after birth when colostrum and milk are extracted from the udder.
  • Those animals are generally affected which are well-fed, in good condition and with little exercise.
  • Some extent, it is due to excitement, hard work and fatigue.

Symptoms :
The onset of the attack is usually within 48 hours after calving but it may occur within 3 days after calving. There is loss of appetite, constipation, restlessness and no fever. There is excitement, paddling with hind feet, looking around with fixed eyes like fearful manner, may bellow, try to break its tie and convulsive movement. After a time, the animal is depressed and disinclined to move, stiffy, staggering or elastical gait, trembling, drowsy, shaking head, twisting tail, cutting teeth, followed by muscular weakness and paralysis. The animal appears to be in deep sleep with unconsciousness. The animal may not be able to swallow its food and its tongue hanging down from the half opened mouth. The eyes are congested and looking reddish. Often the animal lies or sits down on her brisket. The head is turned round over one shoulder resting either one side of the chest often the left or put on the ground stretching either one side of the chest often the left or put on the gound stretching the head. There is dry muzzle and extremites cool. There may be subnormal temperature and death may follow coma. If the animal is not treated immediately, it may terminate in death within 3 to 5 days. In the case of recovery, the animal gradually restores the sense and gets up within a few minutes. But the weakness remains for several weeks.