Defination :
It is inflammation of a joint involving all the structures of the joint such as synovial membrane, joint capsule, ligaments, cartilages and the end of the bones to which it forms a joint. When it is confined to synovial membrane, it is called synovitis. When all the structures are involved, it is called panarthritis. Sometimes, the fixation of the joint takes place. The arthritis mostly affects the fetlocks, knee, hock and stifle joint. This may be acute or chronic.


  • Injuries
  • Faulty conformation
  • Bacterial infection, e.g. Staphylococci, Streptococci, Corynbacteria, Coli bacteria, Brucella abortus, etc.
  • Hereditary tendency.

Symptoms :
Injuries to a joint without infection is usually a simple or mild nature. The synovial membranes become congested and synovial secretion is increased. In some cases, there may be haemorrhage. The surrounding tissues are inflammed according to the severity of the injury. As a result, the joint becomes hot, swollen and painful. The animal goes lame. In the simple condition, the symptoms last for a few days and gradually pass off. In severe cases, there may be pus formation, septicaemia and death such as in joint ill.
In case of bacterial infection, there is swelling, pain, fever and lameness. The swelling is filled with pus or watery fluid which may be tested by a prick of a needle. In condition of pus one or more joints may be involved as in joint ill. In chronic condition the bones are adhered together.
In faulty conformation or in hereditary condition the arthritis becomes chronic. In mild case, th joint is filled with synovia and with pus in organisms infections.


It is a condition of the bone in which the bones become porous, lighter, fragile and deformed. It is the result of the resorption of mineral salts from skeleton. It occurs in all animals at all. ages but young ones are more susceptible


  • Heavy drain out of minerals from body as seen in heavy milking cattle.
  • Deficiency of calcium and phosphorus.
  • Deficiency of minerals.
  • Inflammation of bone tissues.

Symptoms :
It is a chronic disease lasting for months and years. The first sign is lameness. Later the jaw bones are affected and the inter mandibular space correspondingly reduced. Gradually the nasal cavity is reduced with difficult respiration. The whole face and skeletal bones become porous. There may be nodular growths over the skull. The heavy milking cattle may suffer with this osteoporosis. This may be confused with osteomalacia.


: It is a condition in which muscles, tendons, joints and bones are involved, resulting pain, hardness and disability to move, and animal becomes lame.
In some cases, the uterus is also displaced completely along with the vagina after parturition outside the body.

Causes :
Cold and chill, exposed to moisture, dampness, sudden change in tempearture, lack of sun-light, exposure to draught, excessive protein diet, bacterial infection and standing in rain for long period. It occurs in all domesticated animals, but most common in dogs, pigs land horses

Symptoms :
It may be acute, muscular and chronic. There is no distinct difference in these three

(a) Acute Type:
The symptoms develop rapidly with high fever, pulse and respiration invreased., The animal becomes dull. The affected joints become painful and stiff. The appetite is lost. There is usually constipation and high coloured urine. The condition either subsides in a few days or prolongs to weeks resulting death.

(b) Muscular Type :
The signs appear rapidly. The affected muscles are found tense and trembling. Any part of the body may be affected. The most affected are the neck, shoulders alnd abdominal wall. The affected muscles on manipulation causes pain and agony in smaller animals and moan or grunting in larger animals. When back and loins are affected, it is called lumbago and when the croup and thigh are involved, it is called sciatica. The animal moves with lameness in distress.

(c) Chronic Type :
It is also called articular rheumatism. It is commonly localised to the joints and muscles. The affected joint becomes swollen and stiff. There may be depression, poor appetite and slight fever. There may not be lameness