Definition: Pregnancy is a physiological condition in female for having an offspring in the uterus for development before birth. The common diseases to have occurred during pregnancy are given below-

  • Abortion
  • Dystopia
  • Prolapse of vagina
  • Disease Infection

Definition :
It is an expulsion of the fetus from the womb before parturition either alive or dead.

Causes :
External injuries, malnutrition, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, deficiency of hormones and hemolytic diseases.

Symptoms :
Bloody discharge from vagina, restlessness, other symptoms of delivery and undeveloped or dead fetus comes out.


Definition :
It is difficulty during parturition due to some disturbance with the fetus that creates an obstruction in coming out of the fetus

  • Malpresentation
  • Deformity of pelvic passage
  • The rigidity of cervix or os
  • Death of fetus

Symptoms :
Restlessness. lies down and gets up, severe pain and delay in delivery. some parts of a fetus as head and feet may be out but obstructed


Definition :
Sometimes the vagina is displaced and forced to come outside particularly in the pregnant animals. It may occur before and after the parturition mostly in the debilitated and calcium deficient animals.
In some cases, the uterus is also displaced completely along with the vagina after parturition outside the body.

  • Nutritional and Calcium deficiency
  • Raised feeding trough ahead and down in the back.
  • Injuries and accidents.
  • Bad manipulation during Dystokia and retention of placenta.
  • Intense excitement, irritation and pressure of labour.

Symptoms :

The prolapsed vagina looks like a mass and reddish in color. If the uterus is also prolapsed, the protruded parts will be more. The surface of the mass or the mucous membrane looks moist and red or pink in colour. The cotyledons are seen deep red like mushroom eminences or like round nodes. It expands in the open air and there may be mild pain. The animal remains in distress and tries to lie down and to get up frequently. The mass is contaminated with dirt and dust etc and is lacerated by friction and dragging in course of sitting. There is great difficulty in sitting down and getting up and passing urine due to pressure or obstruction on the urethra. The placenta may be formed adhered to the outer surface of the mass that can be easily recognized. The outer surface may be covered with the feces that are passed during severe straining