Defination :
It is inflammation of mucous membrane of large bronchial tubes i.e. bronchi. It may be extension of tracheitis. When small bronchial tubes i.e. bronchioles are affected called capillary bronchitis or bronchiotis. It may be followed by pneumonia or pleurisy. It is very common in all animals. It may be acute and chronic.


Causes :
It is due to damp housing condition, over-crowding, illventilation, faulty drenching, irritant chemicals. gases and smokes, colds and chills, infectious diseases e.g. influenza, strangles, Haemorrhagic septicaemia. calf. Pheumonia, distemper, hogchotera, parasites e.g. Ascarid larvae and strongylus etc.

Symptoms :
Cough and nasal discharge, cough at first hard and dry and later softer and easier, Anorexia and dullness, rise in temperature, respiratory distress and constant blowing and coughing.
In advance condition, the discharges from nose becomes more profuse. In cows, there may be loss of condition and decrease in milk.
In dogs, coughing is often followed by vomiting. Febrile condition with elevation of temperature 2 to 5 degree F. The pulse is accelerated and soft. The skin of muzzle is cracked and sore.

Diagnosis :
Deposite of discharge near the nostrils and muzzle. On auscultation chief changes are heared round about bronchi and trachea. The sound becomes more prominent as the condition increases. In bad cases, the exudate completely obstruchts the bronchi producing no sound in the area. If the larger areas of bronchial tubes are obstructed and the inflammation is extended to lungs tissues, the broncho pneumonia may set up. The temperature goes high up and the animal becomes more dull, depressed and restless. On percussion, there is dullness of sound in both the bronchial and the lungs tissues while there is an increased resonant in emphysematous area (An abnormal presence of air in some part of the body).
The period of condition may last for to 15 days. It may result in chronic bronchitis or emphysema or roaring or Asthma in dogs. The death may occur from Asphyxia


Causes :
It may follow acute form but it may occur as primary condition. It is secondary to chronic diseases of lungs as tuberculosis, glanders. In cattle and other animals, it may occur due to tuberculosis, pulmonary abscess and parasitic worms.
Perasites usually affect the young stock. They are as following-

  • In cattle Dictyocaulus viviparus
  • In sheep & goats Dictyocaulus Filaria
  • In horse Dictyocaulus Arnfieldi
  • In pigs Meta strongylus apri
  • In dogs Filaroids Asleri.

Symptoms :
It begins with a loud, short, hard, dry cough oftenly with spasms. Respiratory abnormal distress sound is audible from a light exercise or exertion. The nasal discharge is white, clotted and purutent. The dry cough arises intermittently in the beginning. later it becomes moist and loose. Respiratory sound becomes abnormal and loud bubbling musical rales may be localised or extensive. There is profuse thick discharge from nose in which the parasites or its larvae are found present. Pneumonia may set in soon which results in death. There is rise of temperature in case of pneumonic development. Bronchitis may result as partial or complete obstruction of bronchi and consequently it leads to emphysema i.e. presence of air. It occurs in dogs and horses.
In dogs, chronic bronchitis often occurs to fatty and middle aged dogs with persisting cough for weeks or months but there is no nasal discharge.


Synonyms : Galghotu, Ghotu. Dakaha etc.

Defintion :
It is an acute, occasionally subacute, infectious and contagious septicaemic disease of cattle and buffaloes characterised by sudden onset. high fever, oedematious swelling particularly in throat, intramaxillary space and dewlap, very rapid fatal course, often gastroenteritis. pneumonia. Generally it occurs in rainy season, mostly in cattle and buffaloes. But camel, sheep, goats, pigs and horses may also be affected.

Etiology- :
It is caused by pasteurella multocidia. It is infected by ingestion through contaminated food and infection is transmitted through the biting flies, ticks, mites, etc.
Symptoms-are of three forms usch as-

  • Cutaneous or Oedematous form
  • Pulmonary or Pectoral or Pneumonic form
  • Intestinal or Enteric form

(i) Cutaneous or Oedematous form :
Sudden high fever, temperature 105°F, rumination suspended, off feed, dullness, rapid pulse and respiration, increased salivation, mucous membrance of mouth swollen, visible mucous membrances dark red, a hard painful swelling in throat region which rextends to intermaxillary space, cheeks alnd neck, difficult deglutition and breathing. In bad cases, protruded tongue, petechial haemorrhages and enlarged lymphatic glands, excessive lachrymation, yellowish discharge from nostrils. Death within 2 dyas with suffocation. In prolong cases pulmonary and intestinal complication set in.

(ii) Pulmonary or Pectoral form :
The swelling of throat often extends to brisket and develop frequent coughing, head and nostrils stretched, mouth opened, mucopurulent discharge or colourless frothy discharge from nose, hurried and laboured respiration with hard sound which is clearly heard from a distance. The swelling is found, hard, hot and painful to touch. There is no crepitating sound on pressure. Sometimes, the abdomen and legs may be found swollen. The animal stands with legs fixied. Death is quick in young animals and in other cases 4 to 6 days.

(iii) Intestinal or Enterice form-:
It is usually associated with pectoral form. The inflammation extends from mouth to lungs, live stomach and intestines, there is colicy pain, diarrhoea, dysentery, tempany and weakness set in rapidly. Death occurs within 4 days otherwise the animal. may survive.


: It is a condition in which muscles, tendons, joints and bones are involved, resulting pain, hardness and disability to move, and animal becomes lame.
In some cases, the uterus is also displaced completely along with the vagina after parturition outside the body.

Causes :
Cold and chill, exposed to moisture, dampness, sudden change in tempearture, lack of sun-light, exposure to draught, excessive protein diet, bacterial infection and standing in rain for long period. It occurs in all domesticated animals, but most common in dogs, pigs land horses

Symptoms :
It may be acute, muscular and chronic. There is no distinct difference in these three

(a) Acute Type:
The symptoms develop rapidly with high fever, pulse and respiration invreased., The animal becomes dull. The affected joints become painful and stiff. The appetite is lost. There is usually constipation and high coloured urine. The condition either subsides in a few days or prolongs to weeks resulting death.

(b) Muscular Type :
The signs appear rapidly. The affected muscles are found tense and trembling. Any part of the body may be affected. The most affected are the neck, shoulders alnd abdominal wall. The affected muscles on manipulation causes pain and agony in smaller animals and moan or grunting in larger animals. When back and loins are affected, it is called lumbago and when the croup and thigh are involved, it is called sciatica. The animal moves with lameness in distress.

(c) Chronic Type :
It is also called articular rheumatism. It is commonly localised to the joints and muscles. The affected joint becomes swollen and stiff. There may be depression, poor appetite and slight fever. There may not be lameness