Bacteria are microscopic microorganisms that cannot be visible to the naked eye but still possess the power to cripple the visible- kind-of big living animals such as Dogs, Cats, and in fact, even humans! It is evident from Historic references, The Great Plague aka The Black Death- a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Afro-Eurasia from 1346-53 killing millions and this microorganism was in fact a Bacteria!
And thus, we now know, something so microscopic, so tiny can be so powerful to cause real damage to your pet’s body.
Now that we have our background ready about Bacterias and their Prowess, let’s dive into this Blog which is about Septicemia, Sepsis in the body caused by nasty Bacterias, also we will go through the Homeopathic Veterinary Medicine to treat our pets
WHAT IS SEPTCEMIA?
Septicemia is also commonly called Sepsis. Septicemia word refers to sepsis in blood.
Sepsis occurs when certain bacterial chemicals are released in the bloodstream to fight an infection trigger inflammation throughout the body. Septicemia occurs when a bacterial infection occurring elsewhere in the body, such as the lungs, Uterus, etc., enters the bloodstream. This is an extremely serious and dangerous condition because the bacteria and their toxins can be carried throughout the bloodstream to your entire body. This can trigger a cascade of changes that leads to damage of multiple organ systems, leading to organ failure, sometimes even resulting in death.
This condition is also commonly referred to as
- Blood Poisoning
- Septic Fever
THE PHASES OF SEPSIS/SEPTICEMIA –
Broadly we can observe three phases of Sepsis in the body they are –
- SEVERE SEPSIS
- SEPTIC SHOCK
Sepsis as a condition progresses from mild to severe to extremely severe and ultimately death if not dealt with aptly and quickly. Thus, quick medical help must be sought out in case of sepsis. Let’s discuss further phases of sepsis.
PHASE I – SEPSIS
This is characterized by –
- Fever of high grade
Most often, the normal body temperature of Dogs is around 101-102°F, anything above this is termed as pyrexia or fever. Fever usually comes, when there is some sort of bacteria/virus or microorganism to be general which is antigenic in nature (harmful and damaging in nature). Thus, fever can be a clear and good indication that some sort of infection is occurring inside the body, and thus apt diagnostic procedures should be carried out to figure it out!
Rapid and quick breathing is medically termed as tachypnea.
It is generally observed along with fever or pyrexia. Thus, even a slight abnormal increase in breathing rate or way is to be observed keenly and it could be an indicator of Sepsis.
- Increase in heartbeat rate.
With the increase in respiratory rate and fever, on examination by your vet, the heartbeat rate also shows an increase.
- Confirmed Diagnosis of Infection.
Sepsis is characterized by bacterial infection occurring inside the body of your pets. Sepsis in dogs is generally seen due to active infection caused by bacterias.
The most commonly occurring infections leading to sepsis in severe conditions are –
- GI tract Infections – e.g., canine parvoviral enteritis, Hemorrhagic Gastro Enteritis
- Respiratory Tract Infection e.g. bacterial pneumonia, pneumococcal Infection, etc.
- The chronic urinary-tract disease which is most often than not caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli
- Uterine Infections – infections such as pyometra (pus in the uterus), mucometra (mucus in the uterus), endometritis (inflammation of the endometrial walls of the uterus), etc. can also trigger an inflammatory response in the body.
- Most often, Gram-negative bacterial infections predominate, with E. coli being the most common isolate observed. However, any bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral organism may cause sepsis.
PHASE II – SEVERE SEPSIS
When the symptoms of sepsis are not properly managed at earlier stages, it leads to a severe septic condition in the body and thus triggering a condition called SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome)
The sequence of events leading to sepsis is very complex and not completely understood. However, it’s noted that microbial products e.g. endotoxins from gram-negative bacteria, exotoxins, peptidoglycans, and from gram-positive bacteria and fungal cell-wall materials induce SIRS- systemic inflammation through activation of immune cells, triggering an immune response.
Symptoms observed are –
- Decreased urination.
- Depression or changes in mental state.
- Low platelet count.
- Tachypnea or difficulty in breathing.
- Abnormal heart functions.
- Unconsciousness and recumbent condition due to weakness
- Cyanosis Blueish discoloration of the mucus membranes (Gums)
PHASE III – SEPTIC SHOCK
Symptoms of septic shock are essentially similar to those of severe sepsis as mentioned above, but they also include an important symptom – a significant drop in blood pressure.
This drop in blood pressure can lead to heart failure, stroke, multiple organ failure, respiratory failure, and ultimately leading to death.
DIAGNOSIS OF SEPSIS
On examination by your veterinarian, your pet may show certain clinical signs and the history which you provide to your vet helps in the formation of a solid Diagnosis. Ensure that you give complete history (whether your pet had any wounds prior, or any Infection, diarrhea vomiting, etc.)
At 1st clinical presentation, your pet may show Hyperdynamic changes i.e. Characterized by Fever, Brick Red mucous membrane, Tachycardia, and Tachypnea. If a certain amount of time has passed, your pet might present clinical signs of Hypodynamic nature i.e. Hypothermia (drop in body temperature), pale mucous membranes, and hypotension.
Your Veterinarian will immediately focus on locating the infection so as to provide apt treatment. Each Bacteria/Virus is different and hence the choice of drugs used for treatment will vary. Thus, proper diagnosis is very essential.
- BLOOD PROFILE
CBC (complete blood count), LFT (Liver Function Test), and KFT (Kidney Function Test)
A routine complete blood check would provide a confirmatory diagnosis of infection. Serum biochemistry profile abnormalities may include – hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, azotemia, etc. Coagulation abnormalities are also very commonly observed. Anticoagulant proteins are decreased. There may be Blood Acidosis and an increase in Lactate on Blood -Gas Analysis.
Ultrasonography is a very important tool to locate infections in the body. A female dog/cat who has a history of a pseudopregnancy or improper (heat) estrous cycle, your veterinarian will definitely opt for a USG to have a look at the uterus of your pet. Infections of the uterus (Pyometra etc) can be aptly diagnosed. Also, your veterinarian will have a look at Kidneys, Liver, Gall Bladder, Intestines, Stomach to check for any abnormalities in shape/size, any abnormal structures like cancer, polyps, stones, etc. Also, the walls of these internal organs can be properly observed, and thus, USG acts as a support to Blood Analysis for perfect diagnosis.
When Diagnosis is perfect, the treatment protocol is initiated which acts on that particular microorganism causing havoc in your pet’s body.
TREATMENT OF SEPSIS
1] ALLOPATHIC TREATMENT
Treatment is solely based upon the diagnosis. Sometimes your vet may even carry out a Bacterial Culture test to check for the kind of bacteria that is causing infection under a microscope. Based upon that, a perfect Antibiotic choice is made.
The use of appropriate broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents is recommended. Your Veterinarian may suggest Amoxicillin, Cephalosporins, etc based upon the need of the hour.
The treatment also involves – Saline (to ensure that there’s no dehydration), Pain Killers such as NSAIDs, Etc. For some dogs, the administration of colloids and vasopressors (if presented with bradycardia, etc) will be indicated.
In fact, the treatment protocol is not a rigid structure and it solely depends upon the individual patients (ie. How they react to therapy, what kind of drugs do they need, etc)
Additionally, supportive care includes-
- Nutritional management
- Frequent reassessment of a patient with the apt treatment protocol and
- Good nursing care by pet parents is a key aspect in the management of sepsis.
2] HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT
Homeopathic Veterinary Medicine for Sepsis in Pets?
SEPTIGO for pets is the best remedy for treating conditions of sepsis anywhere in the body with exceptional improvement in metritis and pyometra conditions.
Homeopathic remedies work on the principle of “similia similibus curanter” which means “like cures like”, so is SEPTIGO. Hence, such formulations that cause symptoms like a diseased animal in a healthy one are used to prepare this wonder drug formula to be able to treat sepsis for varied reasons. It is a formulation that is developed by a renowned Indian veterinarian after consulting many homeopaths and conducting advanced field trials over the years.
Dosage: 20-25 drops three times in a day or as directed by a veterinarian.
Sepsis is a crucial condition, bacterias, viruses, and other disease-causing microorganisms are really dangerous, yet they’re not stronger than the will power of your pet and apt treatment protocol of your Vet. Sepsis is a manageable condition, however, apt diagnosis and quicker treatment initiation are very essential. If your pet starts showing the symptoms of sepsis, please ensure that you take proper steps by taking your pet to the nearest vet for proper management of this condition.
Let’s quickly Fight Infection, so in the future, there’s no Health Tension!
HAPPY PETS FOR A HAPPY YOU!